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First Year Chemistry Chemical Bonding 9. How can the theory of electron pair repulsion be used to rationalize the shapes of simple molecules.


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9. How can the theory of electron pair repulsion be used to rationalize the shapes of simple molecules.

8. What are the most important secondary bonds present in \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} and \mathrm{HF} molecules? How do they affect the physical properties of compound?
8. What are the most important secondary bonds present in  \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}  and  \mathrm{HF}  molecules? How do they affect the physical properties of compound?

8. What are the most important secondary bonds present in \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} and \mathrm{HF} molecules? How do they affect the physical properties of compound?

Q.11 (a) Explain atomic orbital hybridization with reference to \mathrm{sp}^{3} \mathrm{sp}^{2} and s p modes of hybridizations for \mathrm{PH}_{3} \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{4} and \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2} . Discuss geometries of \mathrm{CCl}_{4} \mathrm{PCl}_{3} and \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{~S} by hybridization of central atoms.
Q.11 (a) Explain atomic orbital hybridization with reference to  \mathrm{sp}^{3} \mathrm{sp}^{2}  and  s p  modes of hybridizations for  \mathrm{PH}_{3} \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{4}  and  \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2} . Discuss geometries of  \mathrm{CCl}_{4} \mathrm{PCl}_{3}  and  \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{~S}  by hybridization of central atoms.

Q.11 (a) Explain atomic orbital hybridization with reference to \mathrm{sp}^{3} \mathrm{sp}^{2} and s p modes of hybridizations for \mathrm{PH}_{3} \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{4} and \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2} . Discuss geometries of \mathrm{CCl}_{4} \mathrm{PCl}_{3} and \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{~S} by hybridization of central atoms.

4. How are electrons arranged in molecular compound? Draw electron dot and cross structures for the following atoms.(f) \mathrm{H}_{2}
4. How are electrons arranged in molecular compound? Draw electron dot and cross structures for the following atoms.(f)  \mathrm{H}_{2}

4. How are electrons arranged in molecular compound? Draw electron dot and cross structures for the following atoms.(f) \mathrm{H}_{2}

Q.14 (a) Define bond energy. Explain the various parameters which determine its strength.
Q.14 (a) Define bond energy. Explain the various parameters which determine its strength.

Q.14 (a) Define bond energy. Explain the various parameters which determine its strength.

(b) How do you compare the bond strengths of:(i) Polar and non-polàr molecules
(b) How do you compare the bond strengths of:(i) Polar and non-polàr molecules

(b) How do you compare the bond strengths of:(i) Polar and non-polàr molecules

32. A chemical bond which is formed by mutual sharing of electrons is called.a) Ionic bondb) Covalent bondc) Metallic bondd) None of these
32. A chemical bond which is formed by mutual sharing of electrons is called.a) Ionic bondb) Covalent bondc) Metallic bondd) None of these

32. A chemical bond which is formed by mutual sharing of electrons is called.a) Ionic bondb) Covalent bondc) Metallic bondd) None of these

1. An example of ionic compound is:(a) \mathrm{H}_{2} (b) \mathrm{CH}_{4} (c) \mathrm{N}_{2} (d) \mathrm{NaCl}
1. An example of ionic compound is:(a)  \mathrm{H}_{2} (b)  \mathrm{CH}_{4} (c)  \mathrm{N}_{2} (d)  \mathrm{NaCl}

1. An example of ionic compound is:(a) \mathrm{H}_{2} (b) \mathrm{CH}_{4} (c) \mathrm{N}_{2} (d) \mathrm{NaCl}

Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(iii) \mathrm{CS}_{2}
Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(iii)  \mathrm{CS}_{2}

Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(iii) \mathrm{CS}_{2}

27. Which elements have stable electronic configuration.a) Noble gasesb) s-block elementc) Transition metalsd) p-block elements
27. Which elements have stable electronic configuration.a) Noble gasesb) s-block elementc) Transition metalsd) p-block elements

27. Which elements have stable electronic configuration.a) Noble gasesb) s-block elementc) Transition metalsd) p-block elements

Q.3 Classify the statements as true or false. Explain with reasons.(v) The bond energy of heteroatomic diatomic molecules increases with the decrease in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms.(vi) With increase in bond order bond length decreases and bond strength increases.(vii) The first ionization energies of the elements rise steadily with the increasing atomic number from top to bottom ina group.(viii) A double bond is stronger than a single bond and a triple bond is weaker than a double bond.
Q.3 Classify the statements as true or false. Explain with reasons.(v) The bond energy of heteroatomic diatomic molecules increases with the decrease in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms.(vi) With increase in bond order bond length decreases and bond strength increases.(vii) The first ionization energies of the elements rise steadily with the increasing atomic number from top to bottom ina group.(viii) A double bond is stronger than a single bond and a triple bond is weaker than a double bond.

Q.3 Classify the statements as true or false. Explain with reasons.(v) The bond energy of heteroatomic diatomic molecules increases with the decrease in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms.(vi) With increase in bond order bond length decreases and bond strength increases.(vii) The first ionization energies of the elements rise steadily with the increasing atomic number from top to bottom ina group.(viii) A double bond is stronger than a single bond and a triple bond is weaker than a double bond.

Select the correct statement.(vi) Which of the following species has unpaired electrons in antibonding molecular orbitals?(a) \mathrm{O}_{2}^{21} (b) \mathrm{N}_{2}^{2} (c) \mathrm{B}_{2} (d) \mathrm{F}_{2}
Select the correct statement.(vi) Which of the following species has unpaired electrons in antibonding molecular orbitals?(a)   \mathrm{O}_{2}^{21} (b) \mathrm{N}_{2}^{2} (c)  \mathrm{B}_{2} (d)   \mathrm{F}_{2}

Select the correct statement.(vi) Which of the following species has unpaired electrons in antibonding molecular orbitals?(a) \mathrm{O}_{2}^{21} (b) \mathrm{N}_{2}^{2} (c) \mathrm{B}_{2} (d) \mathrm{F}_{2}

Q.3 Classify the statements as true or false. Explain with reasons.(i) The core of an atom is the atom minus its valence shell.(ii) The molecules of nitrogen (\mathrm{N} \equiv \mathrm{N}) and acetylene (\mathrm{HC} \equiv \mathrm{CH}) are not isoelectronic.(iii) There are four coordinate covalent bonds in \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+} ion.(iv) A \sigma -bond is stronger than a \pi -bond and the electrons of \sigma -bond are more diffused than \pi -bond.
Q.3 Classify the statements as true or false. Explain with reasons.(i) The core of an atom is the atom minus its valence shell.(ii) The molecules of nitrogen  (\mathrm{N} \equiv \mathrm{N})  and acetylene  (\mathrm{HC} \equiv \mathrm{CH})  are not isoelectronic.(iii) There are four coordinate covalent bonds in  \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+} ion.(iv)  A \sigma -bond is stronger than a  \pi -bond and the electrons of  \sigma -bond are more diffused than  \pi -bond.

Q.3 Classify the statements as true or false. Explain with reasons.(i) The core of an atom is the atom minus its valence shell.(ii) The molecules of nitrogen (\mathrm{N} \equiv \mathrm{N}) and acetylene (\mathrm{HC} \equiv \mathrm{CH}) are not isoelectronic.(iii) There are four coordinate covalent bonds in \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+} ion.(iv) A \sigma -bond is stronger than a \pi -bond and the electrons of \sigma -bond are more diffused than \pi -bond.

Select the correct statement.(iii) Which of the following statement is not correct regarding bonding molecular orbitals?(a) Bonding molecular orbitals possess less energy than atomic orbitals from which they are formed.(b) Bonding molecular orbitals have low electron density between the two nuclei.(c) Every electron in the bonding molecular orbitals contributes to the attraction between atoms.(d) Bonding molecular orbitals are formed when the electron waves undergo constructive interference.
Select the correct statement.(iii) Which of the following statement is not correct regarding bonding molecular orbitals?(a) Bonding molecular orbitals possess less energy than atomic orbitals from which they are formed.(b) Bonding molecular orbitals have low electron density between the two nuclei.(c) Every electron in the bonding molecular orbitals contributes to the attraction between atoms.(d) Bonding molecular orbitals are formed when the electron waves undergo constructive interference.

Select the correct statement.(iii) Which of the following statement is not correct regarding bonding molecular orbitals?(a) Bonding molecular orbitals possess less energy than atomic orbitals from which they are formed.(b) Bonding molecular orbitals have low electron density between the two nuclei.(c) Every electron in the bonding molecular orbitals contributes to the attraction between atoms.(d) Bonding molecular orbitals are formed when the electron waves undergo constructive interference.

(b) Explain what do you understand by the term electronegativity? Discuss its variations in the periodic table. How does it affect the bond strengths?
(b) Explain what do you understand by the term electronegativity? Discuss its variations in the periodic table. How does it affect the bond strengths?

(b) Explain what do you understand by the term electronegativity? Discuss its variations in the periodic table. How does it affect the bond strengths?

Q.13a) Sketch the molecular orbital pictures of(iii) \mathrm{He}_{2} and \mathrm{Ne}_{2}
Q.13a) Sketch the molecular orbital pictures of(iii)  \mathrm{He}_{2}  and  \mathrm{Ne}_{2}

Q.13a) Sketch the molecular orbital pictures of(iii) \mathrm{He}_{2} and \mathrm{Ne}_{2}

12 . Write uses of adhesive material.
 12 . Write uses of adhesive material.

12 . Write uses of adhesive material.

9. How can the theory of electron pair repulsion be used to rationalize the shapes of simple molecules.
9. How can the theory of electron pair repulsion be used to rationalize the shapes of simple molecules.
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9. How can the theory of electron pair repulsion be used to rationalize the shapes of simple molecules.

Q.4 What is a chemical bond? Discuss the formation of ionic and covalent bonds. How does the electronegativity differences differentiate between ionic and covālent bōnd?
Q.4 What is a chemical bond? Discuss the formation of ionic and covalent bonds. How does the electronegativity differences differentiate between ionic and covālent bōnd?

Q.4 What is a chemical bond? Discuss the formation of ionic and covalent bonds. How does the electronegativity differences differentiate between ionic and covālent bōnd?

2 . Explain element attain stability?
 2 . Explain element attain stability?
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2 . Explain element attain stability?

24. What is the expected bond angle for each \mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C} bond in \mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{6} a) 109^{0} b) 120^{0} c) 180^{0} d) 104^{0}
24. What is the expected bond angle for each  \mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C}  bond in  \mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{6} a)  109^{0} b)  120^{0} c)  180^{0} d)  104^{0}
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24. What is the expected bond angle for each \mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C}-\mathrm{C} bond in \mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{6} a) 109^{0} b) 120^{0} c) 180^{0} d) 104^{0}

(b) How does molecular orbital theory explain the paramagnetic character of \mathrm{O}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}^{2+} and \mathrm{O}_{2}^{2-} species?
(b) How does molecular orbital theory explain the paramagnetic character of  \mathrm{O}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}^{2+}  and  \mathrm{O}_{2}^{2-}  species?
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(b) How does molecular orbital theory explain the paramagnetic character of \mathrm{O}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}^{2+} and \mathrm{O}_{2}^{2-} species?

Select the correct statement.(iv) Which of the following molecules has zero dipole moment?(a) \mathrm{NH}_{3} (b) \mathrm{CHCl}_{3} (c) \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} (d)
Select the correct statement.(iv) Which of the following molecules has zero dipole moment?(a) \mathrm{NH}_{3}   (b)  \mathrm{CHCl}_{3} (c)  \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} (d)
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Select the correct statement.(iv) Which of the following molecules has zero dipole moment?(a) \mathrm{NH}_{3} (b) \mathrm{CHCl}_{3} (c) \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} (d)

Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(i) \mathrm{HCN}
Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(i)  \mathrm{HCN}
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Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(i) \mathrm{HCN}

1. Describe the main types of bonds. What physical properties are associated with the molecules containing these bonds.
1. Describe the main types of bonds. What physical properties are associated with the molecules containing these bonds.
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1. Describe the main types of bonds. What physical properties are associated with the molecules containing these bonds.

4. How are electrons arranged in molecular compound? Draw electron dot and cross structures for the following atoms.(d) \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2}
4. How are electrons arranged in molecular compound? Draw electron dot and cross structures for the following atoms.(d)  \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2}
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4. How are electrons arranged in molecular compound? Draw electron dot and cross structures for the following atoms.(d) \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2}

16 . Write down the characteristics of ionic compounds.
 16 . Write down the characteristics of ionic compounds.
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16 . Write down the characteristics of ionic compounds.

18. Which of the following does not have a double or triple bond?a) \mathrm{HCN} b) \mathrm{CO}_{2} c) \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} d) \mathrm{N}_{2}
18. Which of the following does not have a double or triple bond?a)  \mathrm{HCN} b)  \mathrm{CO}_{2} c)  \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} d)  \mathrm{N}_{2}
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18. Which of the following does not have a double or triple bond?a) \mathrm{HCN} b) \mathrm{CO}_{2} c) \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} d) \mathrm{N}_{2}

Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(iv) \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{~N} \rightarrow \mathrm{AlF}_{3}
Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(iv)  \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{~N} \rightarrow \mathrm{AlF}_{3}
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Write the Lewis structures for the following compounds:(iv) \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{~N} \rightarrow \mathrm{AlF}_{3}

22. Which of the following pairs is most likely to form predominantly covalent bonds?a) Hydrogen and fluorineb) Magnesium and oxygenc) Potassium and chlorined) Sodium and iodine
22. Which of the following pairs is most likely to form predominantly covalent bonds?a) Hydrogen and fluorineb) Magnesium and oxygenc) Potassium and chlorined) Sodium and iodine
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22. Which of the following pairs is most likely to form predominantly covalent bonds?a) Hydrogen and fluorineb) Magnesium and oxygenc) Potassium and chlorined) Sodium and iodine

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