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First Year Physics Heat and Thermodynamics


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VariationinvolumebypressureisgiveninFig.11.13.AgasistakenalongthepathsABCDAABCAandAtoA.Whatwillbethechangeininternalenergy?(a)(b)(c)Variation in volume by pressure is given in Fig. 11.13. A gas is taken along the paths A B C D A A B C A and A to A . What will be the change in internal energy?(a)(b)(c)

Show that ratio of the root mean square speeds of molecules of two different gases at a certain temperature is equal to the square root of the inverse ratio of their masses.
Show that ratio of the root mean square speeds of molecules of two different gases at a certain temperature is equal to the square root of the inverse ratio of their masses.

Showthatratiooftherootmeansquarespeedsofmoleculesoftwodifferentgasesatacertaintemperatureisequaltothesquarerootoftheinverseratiooftheirmasses.Show that ratio of the root mean square speeds of molecules of two different gases at a certain temperature is equal to the square root of the inverse ratio of their masses.

Which one of the following process is irreversible?(a) Slow compressions of an elastic spring.(b) Slow evaporation of a substance in an isolated vessel.(c) Slow compression of a gas.(d) A chemical explosion.
Which one of the following process is irreversible?(a) Slow compressions of an elastic spring.(b) Slow evaporation of a substance in an isolated vessel.(c) Slow compression of a gas.(d) A chemical explosion.

Whichoneofthefollowingprocessisirreversible?(a)Slowcompressionsofanelasticspring.(b)Slowevaporationofasubstanceinanisolatedvessel.(c)Slowcompressionofagas.(d)Achemicalexplosion.Which one of the following process is irreversible?(a) Slow compressions of an elastic spring.(b) Slow evaporation of a substance in an isolated vessel.(c) Slow compression of a gas.(d) A chemical explosion.

EXAMPLE 11.4The turbine in a steam power plant takes steam from a boiler at 427{ }^{\circ} \mathrm{C} and exhausts into a low temperature reservoir at 77^{\circ} \mathrm{C} . What is the maximum possible efficiency.
EXAMPLE 11.4The turbine in a steam power plant takes steam from a boiler at  427{ }^{\circ} \mathrm{C}  and exhausts into a low temperature reservoir at  77^{\circ} \mathrm{C} . What is the maximum possible efficiency.

EXAMPLE11.4Theturbineinasteampowerplanttakessteamfromaboilerat427Candexhaustsintoalowtemperaturereservoirat77C.Whatisthemaximumpossibleefficiency.EXAMPLE 11.4The turbine in a steam power plant takes steam from a boiler at 427{ }^{\circ} \mathrm{C} and exhausts into a low temperature reservoir at 77^{\circ} \mathrm{C} . What is the maximum possible efficiency.

A carnot engine utilises an ideal gas. The source temperature is 227^{\circ} \mathrm{C} and the sink temperature is 127^{\circ} \mathrm{C} . Find the efficiency of the engine. Also find the heat input from the source and heat rejected to the sink when 10000 \mathrm{~J} of work is done.
A carnot engine utilises an ideal gas. The source temperature is  227^{\circ} \mathrm{C}  and the sink temperature is  127^{\circ} \mathrm{C} . Find the efficiency of the engine. Also find the heat input from the source and heat rejected to the sink when  10000 \mathrm{~J}  of work is done.

Acarnotengineutilisesanidealgas.Thesourcetemperatureis227Candthesinktemperatureis127C.Findtheefficiencyoftheengine.Alsofindtheheatinputfromthesourceandheatrejectedtothesinkwhen10000 Jofworkisdone.A carnot engine utilises an ideal gas. The source temperature is 227^{\circ} \mathrm{C} and the sink temperature is 127^{\circ} \mathrm{C} . Find the efficiency of the engine. Also find the heat input from the source and heat rejected to the sink when 10000 \mathrm{~J} of work is done.

A heat engine performs 100 \mathrm{~J} of work and at the same time rejects 400 \mathrm{~J} of heat energy to the cold reservoirs. What is the efficiency of the engine?
A heat engine performs  100 \mathrm{~J}  of work and at the same time rejects  400 \mathrm{~J}  of heat energy to the cold reservoirs. What is the efficiency of the engine?

Aheatengineperforms100 Jofworkandatthesametimerejects400 Jofheatenergytothecoldreservoirs.Whatistheefficiencyoftheengine?A heat engine performs 100 \mathrm{~J} of work and at the same time rejects 400 \mathrm{~J} of heat energy to the cold reservoirs. What is the efficiency of the engine?

Is it possible to convert internal energy into mechanical energy? Explain with an example.
Is it possible to convert internal energy into mechanical energy? Explain with an example.

Isitpossibletoconvertinternalenergyintomechanicalenergy?Explainwithanexample.Is it possible to convert internal energy into mechanical energy? Explain with an example.

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